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Geospatial Data, Information, and Related Products

The production of digital cartographic data and graphic maps comprises the largest component of the USGS National Mapping Program (NMP). Cartographic data are compiled from aerial photographs, other remotely sensed images, historical records, legal documents, and direct field observations and surveys and comply with standards of content, geometric accuracy, and presentation. Modern, automated equipment is used in this process, replacing the labor-intensive processes of the past. The NMP incorporates the documented needs of 40 Federal agencies and the 50 States, which are solicited and analyzed as part of a continuous requirements assessment process.

| Printed Maps | Aerial Photographs | Space Photographs & Satellite Data | Digital Geospatial Data | Geographic Names | Publications | Software |
| Map and Product Ordering | Map Prices | Map Dealers | Online Data | EarthExplorer |

Printed Maps

Topographic Quadrangle Maps
The USGS's most familiar product is the 1:24,000-scale Topographic Quadrangle Map. This is the primary scale of data produced, and depicts greater detail for a smaller area than intermediate-scale (1:50,000 and 1:100,000) and small-scale (1:250,000, 1:2,000,000 or smaller) products, which show selectively less detail for larger areas.
Orthophotoquads are distortion-free aerial photographs that are formatted and printed as standard 7.5 minute, 1:24,000-scale quadrangles (15-minute in Alaska) or as quarter quadrangles at a scale of 1:12,000.
Satellite Image Maps
Experimental multicolored or black-and-white image maps produced from digital data collected by Land Satellite (Landsat) and Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) sensors. Scales range from 1:24,000 (Point Loma, Calif.) to 1:7,500,000 (conterminous 48 States).
Thematic Maps
Maps in which information on special subjects is geographically displayed on planimetric base maps or overlays registered to planimetric or topographic base maps. This category includes land use and land cover and associated maps, geologic and hydrologic studies, and National Atlas maps.
Other Format Maps
This category consists of maps in non-quadrangle format. These maps include: a county map series, State base map series, U.S. base maps, a National Park series, and outline maps of the world. Scales range from 1:960 to 1:80 million.
Other Map Products
Other map products, published to meet the special needs of Federal agencies, include: selected National Imagery and Mapping Agency map and chart products, USDA Forest Service National Forest and Grasslands Maps, Antarctic map series, shaded relief topographic maps, topographic-bathymetric maps, and U.S. border maps.

For more specific information and ordering instructions for Printed Maps, see: USGS Printed Maps

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Aerial Photographs

Aerial Photographs
Aerial photographs archived and distributed by the USGS include the repository of multiagency National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) photos at 1:40,000 scale in color infrared or black and white; National High Altitude Aerial Photography Program (NHAP) photos at 1:58,000 scale for color infrared and 1:80,000 for black and white; and aerial photos at various scales from USGS mapping projects and other Federal agencies such as the Bureau of Reclamation, Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ)
Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ) are digital images of aerial photographs in which displacements caused by the camera and the terrain have been removed. A DOQ combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. The standard digital orhthophoto produced by the USGS is a black-and-white or color-infrared 1-meter ground resolution quarter quadrangle (3.75-minute) image.

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Space Photography and Satellite-Derived Data and Imagery

Products archived and available through the USGS with substantial coverage of the United States include:

Space Acquired Photography
From NASA manned spaceflight missions.
Digital Satellite Images
Products include Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR ) images and Land Satellite (Landsat) Thematic Mapper (TM ) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) digital data. Also available are color and black-and-white photographic products generated from various satellite sources.

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Digital Geospatial Data

Products archived and available through the USGS include:

Digital Line Graphs (DLG)
DLG's are vector files containing line data, such as roads and streams, digitized from USGS topographic maps. DLG's offer a full range of attribute codes, are highly accurate, and are topologically structured, which makes them ideal for use in geographic information systems (GIS).
Digital Raster Graphics (DRG)
DRG's are scanned images of USGS topographic maps. A scanned DRG image includes all map collar information. The image inside the map neatline is georeferenced to the Earth's surface. A DRG can be combined with digital data or images (for example, DOQ's) to aid in the collection, review, and revision of other types of digital data, especially DLG 's.
Digital Elevation Models (DEM)
DEM's are digital records of terrain elevations for ground positions at regularly spaced horizontal intervals. DEM 's are developed from stereo models or digital contour line files derived from USGS topographic quadrangle maps.
Land Use and Land Cover (LULC)
LULC data are derived from thematic overlays registered to 1:250,000-scale base maps and a limited number of 1:100,000-scale base maps. LULC data provide information on urban or built-up land, agricultural land, rangeland, forest land, water, wetlands, barren land, tundra, and perennial snow or ice. Associated maps display information in five data categories: (1) political units, (2) hydrologic units, (3) census county subdivisions, (4) Federal land ownership, and (5) State land ownership.
Upper Mississippi and Lower Missouri Data Base
This data base forms an Environmental Information System for the Upper Mississippi and Missouri River Basins developed in response to the great flood of 1993. This system includes satellite data, elevation data, digitized aerial photographs, data on historic river channels, man-made structures, hazardous/toxic waste sites, spatially referenced information on soils, and various geologic, biologic, hydrologic, and hydrographic themes. The component data sets were designed for widely different purposes, and are stored in a variety of formats and map scales. The majority of data were provided by Federal agencies and are in the public domain. A small number of data sets have distribution restrictions due to proprietary agreements or to protect resources at sensitive locations such as archaeologic sites or endangered species nesting areas.

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Geographic Names Information System (GNIS )

The GNIS data base contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States, including the Federally recognized name and location. The GNIS is the Nation's official repository of domestic geographic names information. An online query of the GNIS data base is also available.

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Mapping-Related Earth Science Publications

The USGS publishes a wide range of general interest and technical earth science publications. Cartographic, geographic, and other mapping-related publications include program and product fact sheets, booklets, posters, and brochures.

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Mapping-Related Public-Domain Software

The USGS maintains a collection of public-domain software developed by or for the USGS, including cartographic, map production and revision, geospatial metadata, and mapping products access applications.

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